How to print the last N fields (or slice an array) with awk
A functionality that I require, relatively frequently, when scripting, is to print the last N fields of a stream, with awk.
A typical example, is to copy part of the commits of a git
+ 81061edd2023c399539f1ff5cfdc267fd41c5c43 Ruby GUI development article: add `Some references` section + 5c60b7ef357683137b5f772f8590ab7d12c8e218 Ruby GUI development article: add `Footnotes` section + b6fe3469bc2ae59a7eba629c16ab11c67b7fbcbf Ruby GUI development article: add note about browser-based toolkits [...]
This post explains how to do it, with some extra goodies.
- Reformulating the approach
- The pieces
- Putting everything together
Reformulating the approach
So, how does one print the last N fields with awk? The answer is simple: one doesn’t.
I’ll reformulate the question, instead: “what’s the most convenient way to print the last N fields of a stream?”.
Awk’s solution is inelegant: since there’s no support to slice an array, one has to cycle the field variables (or blank the unwanted fields).
So, let’s explore what Perl provides.
Automatically printing the newline (in Perl 5.x)
Having to add
\n at the end of each string
$ perl --help | grep terminator -l[octal] enable line ending processing, specifies line terminator
Without a parameter (and when specified with
-p), this option chomps the input and automatically adds
\n to the
$ print "operation1: log content 1\noperation2: log content 2" | perl -l -ne 'print /: (.*)/' log content 1 log content 2
Here’s an extra goodie: in Perl, print a regular expression capturing groups, will print the capturing groups - in this case,
print /: (.*)/ will print anything after
… and we don’t need any newline 😉
Note that in Perl 6, the
say command does this without using any option.
Perl actually has a functionality to automatically split an input (into the
@F variable), which matches (in the base form) awk’s field variables:
$ perl --help | grep autosplit -a autosplit mode with -n or -p (splits $_ into @F) $ echo 'this is the input' | perl -l -a -ne 'print @F' input
Note how, differently from awk,
@F is 0-indexed.
Slicing an array
Slicing an array in Perl is very familiar for those working with scripting languages (Ruby, Python…), with the only nag being that [in this context¹] we can’t reference the last field as
-1; we just use the array length operator (
$#) and we’re done:
$ echo 'this is the input' | perl -lane 'print "@F[2..$#F]"' the input
Send the stdout of a process to the global clipboard
This is unrelated to Perl, but very useful: in Linux, one can use the
xsel program (on Debian/Ubuntu, just install the package with the same name) to copy the stdout of a process to the clipboard:
$ xsel --help | grep -P '-[ib]' -i, --input Read standard input into the selection -o, --output Write the selection to standard output $ echo 'this goes to the clipboard' | xsel -ibo # nothing in the output! goes to the clipboard
Putting everything together
Let’s suppose we’re on a git branch. We want to create a bullet list of the commits contained in the branch [but not in master], and copy it to the clipboard, so that we can paste it on a PR (😉).
This is the output, when executing from the branch:
$ git cherry -v master + 81061edd2023c399539f1ff5cfdc267fd41c5c43 Ruby GUI development article: add `Some references` section + 5c60b7ef357683137b5f772f8590ab7d12c8e218 Ruby GUI development article: add `Footnotes` section + b6fe3469bc2ae59a7eba629c16ab11c67b7fbcbf Ruby GUI development article: add note about browser-based toolkits + 71a9752e7ec3d6bd59bcf342faa8ee974596e238 Ruby GUI development article: add status to (and reorder) main table; use ruby names, not libraries + 25f3827acc3c798075e21d003c4b73ddf8256237 Ruby GUI development article: reorder some entries + 743a3df39168380cda51e873121262fc54266708 Ruby GUI development article: add a subsection for unassessed libraries (added Ruby-QML)
Now, let’s use all the tools/functionalities gathered until now:
$ git cherry -v master | perl -lane 'print "- @F[6..$#F]"' | xsel -io
and lo and behold, this is going to be the content of the clipboard:
- add `Some references` section - add `Footnotes` section - add note about browser-based toolkits - add status to (and reorder) main table; use ruby names, not libraries - reorder some entries - add a subsection for unassessed libraries (added Ruby-QML)
As an engineer, I’m not really concerned with what I use, rather, with what’s the best² approach to a given job; in this case, I require compactness, as long as readability is sacrificed, at most, only a little.
Personally, I consider consolidating as many use cases/requirements as possible into a single tool/service, a significant engineering principle. In this area, I found Perl a very successful tool.
Enjoy effective and efficient text processing!